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HstEx® has been designed to process a forensic image, physical/logical disk or binary dump at sector level.  It does not work at the file system level.  When HstEx® searches your source, it will search it a sector (or number of sectors depending on the block size set) at a time.  HstEx® uses linear processing and will examine each block of data contiguously.  This means that it will potentially recover data from (but not limited to) the following areas:

  • Unallocated clusters
  • Unused disk space
  • Cluster slack
  • Volume slack
  • Reserved disk areas
  • Swap files
  • Binary dump files
  • Hibernation files
  • Deleted Files
  • Resident Files
  • Shadow Volumes
  • Restore Points

It works in a similar way to an imager in that it starts at sector zero and processes all the data to the end.  In many cases, it can recover individual records relating to Browser activity without the entire file being present on the source image or disk.  As HstEx® ignores the file system, it can be run across many source file system types without issue.  It also means that when it recovers from a disk or image, it will potentially recover the live data as well as any that is deleted.  To identify the location of source evidence, it will record the physical sector and sector offset of any data it recovers.  This allows an independent third party to verify the exact source of the evidence on your source disk or image.

Limitations of Linear Processing

What HstEx® cannot do is recover data which traverses a cluster boundary on non-contiguous clusters.  This is one of the reasons why you need to also extract and examine the available live data.

Record Based Extraction (RBE)

With many of the browser types, HstEx® uses a powerful search engine which is capable of Record Based Extraction.  In some circumstances, there can be limitations with RBE.  Some live browser files contain information which cannot be recovered using RBE.  For example, Microsoft Internet Explorer cache records contain an integer representing a zero based index which identifies the location of the cached item.  Whilst the index is contained within the record, the folder array containing the folder name string is stored at the start of the file.  RBE will not recover the name of folder as this is not stored within the record.

File Based Extraction (FBE)

Another extraction methodology employed by HstEx® is File Based Extraction.  Some browser index files are designed in such a way as to make RBE impossible.  The History file from Firefox v1 - 2 is one such example.  Firefox v1 - 2 uses a Mork database which, because of its complicated structure, makes RBE impossible.  As such, it is impossible to recover individual Mork entries from unallocated clusters.  In this case, HstEx® employs FBE to recover Firefox v1 - 2 History.

Recommended Forensic Methodology

We recommend that you extract the live data from your source as well as processing the entire image so that you recover potentially fragmented live files and all the recoverable deleted data.  This is because:

  • HstEx® employs a mixture of Record (RBE) and File Based Extraction (FBE)
  • Fragmented data cannot be recovered with Linear Processing
  • HstEx® does not support all the supported data types supported by NetAnalysis®

Of course, you will end up with some duplication during your examination, but this is a small price to pay to ensure you have all the possible evidence.

You will also need to recover live cache files for processing so that NetAnalysis® can rebuild the visited pages.  Internet Explorer cache entries have an index value which points to a zero based string aray which stores the cache folder name.  This is stored at front of the file.  This means you have to import a live cache INDEX.DAT file to get the full original path of the cache object.  During RBE extraction used by HstEx®, although we can identify the index value for the array, we do not have the string array containing the folder names; therefore it is not possible to identify full cached paths using RBE.

This is why you must use both methods for a full examination